Thursday, January 30, 2014

Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Cafe











"Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Café" was a restaurant Thelma Todd operated in partnership with Roland West and Jewel Carmen in Santa Monica, near the Pacific Ocean.



 
Thelma Todd at the door of the Sidewalk Café. 
 
 
 
Disregard the "copyright notice" put in by an ebay seller.
 


 
 
 
 
 
Sign on this door announces that a steakhouse was going to open at the start of the next year.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thelma Todd in the kitchen.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Views of the dining room in color.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interior scene.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Snapshot of two little boys taken in front of the Sidewalk Café.

 
 
 
 
Two photos taken in front of the Sidewalk Café.




 
 














Photo of the Sidewalk Café with steps indicated that led to the garage in which Thelma Todd's body was found.

 
 
Although the restaurant was said to have been losing money at the time of Thelma Todd's death, Roland West continued to operate it for years afterwards. 
 
 
 
"Chez Roland", as it was then called, in 1949.





 
 
 
 
Roland West left the Sidewalk Café to his widow, Lola Lane, who ended up giving the building to the Paulists, who used it as a center for the production of religious films.
 
 
 
Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Café today.
 
 



Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Café:
http://benny-drinnon.blogspot.com/2014/01/home-movies-thelma-todds-sidewalk-cafe.html

http://benny-drinnon.blogspot.com/2012/02/rudy-schafer-returns-to-sidewalk-cafe.html

http://www.paulistproductions.org/about-us-our-building.html

http://wikimapia.org/6556973/Thelma-Todd-s-Sidewalk-Cafe-Historical-Site



A

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Home Movies - Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Cafe As Parker's Pharmacy





Home movies that show "Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Café" before it was the Sidewalk Café can be seen at the Internet Archive. This film dates from 1929-1930 and shows scenes of the Pacific Palisades and San Francisco.


 
The building had a sign on the front that read "Parker's Pharmacy", which can be seen in this scene in the film, although it can't actually be read in this frame enlargement.
 
 
 
A period photo of the front of the building.
 
 
The sign that says "Parker's Pharmacy" isn't too clear in this picture, either.
 





See this film at the Internet Archive:
https://archive.org/details/HomeMoviesCan11215PacificPalisadesAreaAndSanFranciscoScenesCa


Thelma Todd's Sidewalk Café Building - Paulist Productions:
http://www.paulistproductions.org/about-us-our-building.html


A

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

THE BOHEMIAN GIRL












THE BOHEMIAN GIRL was Thelma Todd's last movie.


The Bohemian Girl

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
The Bohemian Girl
L&H Bohemian Girl 1936.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJames W. Horne
Charley Rogers
Produced byStan Laurel
Hal Roach
Written byMichael William Balfe
Alfred Bunn (libretto)
Frank Butler (screenplay)
StarringStan Laurel
Oliver Hardy
Thelma Todd
Mae Busch
Antonio Moreno
Darla Hood
Jacqueline Wells
Jimmy Finlayson
Music byMichael William Balfe (original operetta)
Robert Shayon
Nathaniel Shilkret
CinematographyFrancis Corby
Art Lloyd
Editing byBert Jordan
Louis McManus
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release datesFebruary 14, 1936 (1936-02-14)
Running time70' 52"
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
The Bohemian Girl is a 1936 feature film version of the opera The Bohemian Girl by Michael William Balfe. It was produced at the Hal Roach Studios, and stars Laurel and Hardy and Thelma Todd in her last role before her death.

Plot

Laurel and Hardy are a hen-pecked pair of Gypsies in 18th- century Austria. When Oliver is out pickpocketing, fortune-telling or attending his zither lessons, his wife (Mae Busch), has an affair with Devilshoof (Antonio Moreno). A cruel nobleman, Count Arnheim, persecutes the Gypsies, who are forced to flee, but Devilshoof, in revenge for having been lashed by the count, kidnaps his daughter, Arline (Darla Hood), and Mrs. Hardy fools Hardy into thinking she is their daughter. She soon elopes with Devilshoof, and leaves Hardy holding the baby.
Twelve years later, the Gypsies return to Arnheim's estate. When grown up Arline (Jacqueline Wells) trespasses in Arnheim's garden, she recognises the place, but is arrested by a constable (Jimmy Finlayson) and sentenced to a lashing. Stan and Oliver try to save her, but Stan is too drunk and both are arrested. Just as Arline is stripped in order to be lashed, she is rescued in time by Arnheim, who recognises a medallion she wears and a family birthmark, and both try to rescue Stan and Oliver. It is too late though: Laurel and Hardy had already been worked over in the torture chamber, resulting in one of the team's best sight gags.

Thelma Todd's role

Thelma Todd had starred in four Laurel and Hardy films, including their first talkie, Unaccustomed As We Are.
Todd died on 16 December 1935 at age 29. She had been found in the garage of her home, poisoned by the fumes of her own car. Stan Laurel received a Christmas present from her soon afterwards. The jury brought out a verdict of accidental death because there was little or no evidence for suicide.
Three films starring Todd were released after her death. In The Bohemian Girl, Todd had played the Gypsy Queen, a very substantial role. All of her scenes were re-shot and her character was renamed as the Gypsy Queen's Daughter, and Zeffie Tilbury playing the Queen, and with a vampish Mae Busch character replacing her in the narrative. One scene of Todd's was kept in as a tribute to her: a musical number where she sings "Heart of a Gypsy".

Quotes

Meta-reference: James Finlayson, well- known for his comical squinting, gets poked in the eye at one point and cries: "Oh! My good eye!"

Casting and production details

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer wanted to cast a talented newcomer as Arline. Hal Roach cast Darla Hood, who had just begun appearing in Roach's Our Gang comedies, as young Arline and Julie Bishop as adult Arline.
Rosina Lawrence dubs Jacqueline Wells's singing.
Paulette Goddard has a small uncredited role as a Gypsy.
Stan Laurel's pet myna, Yogi, appears in the film.
The Count was played by W.P. Carleton, who had played the role on stage over a number of decades and who was a distant cousin of the British actor Sir Guy Standing.

References

External links

                                                 *                         *                         *




Jimmy Finlayson, who was frequently shown squinting in the movies, is shown squinting in this publicity photo. This business was the reason for the line in this movie about his "good eye".

 
 
After the death of Thelma Todd, Stan Laurel had all but one of her scenes cut from the finished film. It is said that this was done because he was afraid that association with her might hurt the movie at the box office. 
 
 
 
 




Watch THE BOHEMIAN GIRL.








A

ON THE LOOSE





ON THE LOOSE starred Zasu Pitts and Thelma Todd, and featured a cameo appearance by Laurel and Hardy.


PART 1




PART 2







A

CHICKENS COME HOME





CHICKENS COME HOME is another Laurel and Hardy movie with Thelma Todd in it.


Chickens Come Home

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
       
 
Chickens Come Home
Chickenscomehometitlecard.jpg
UK title card
Directed byJames W. Horne
Produced byHal Roach
Written byHal Roach (story)
H.M. Walker (dialogue)
StarringStan Laurel
Oliver Hardy
Music byMarvin Hatley
Leroy Shield
CinematographyJack Stevens
Art Lloyd
Editing byRichard C. Currier
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release datesFebruary 21, 1931
Running time30' 26" (English)
56' 11" (Spanish)
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Chickens Come Home is a 1931 short film starring Laurel and Hardy, directed by James W. Horne and produced by Hal Roach. It was shot in January, 1931 and released on February 21, 1931. It is a remake of the 1927 silent film Love 'em and Weep in which Jimmy Finlayson played Hardy's role and Hardy played a party guest.

Plot

Fertilizer dealer and mayoral candidate Ollie is confronted by an old flame (Mae Busch) at his office, threatening to publish an old photograph of the woman and Ollie riding piggyback on the beach if she is not paid off. Ollie agrees to meet her that evening to make a settlement, but Mrs. Hardy (Thelma Todd) arrives to remind him of a dinner party taking place at that same moment. Ollie recruits employee Stan to go to the woman's apartment while Ollie attends the party, a maneuver which does not please the woman, who demands Ollie's telephone number, touching off a variety of misunderstandings and suspicions of unfaithfulness between the boys, their wives, Ollie's butler and Mrs. Laurel's gossipy friend.
The woman eventually makes it to Ollie's house, despite Stan's efforts; Ollie passes him off as Mrs. Laurel to avoid suspicion. After the guests leave, Ollie threatens to kill the woman and then himself, causing her to faint. The boys attempt to get her out of the house, but Mrs. Hardy and Mrs. Laurel, the latter armed with a hatchet, easily catch on, and the boys flee.

Cast

Spanish version

A Spanish-language version of this film was completely re-shot with the stars delivering their lines in phonetic Spanish. It was expanded to one hour by adding scenes of Abraham J. Cantu, a magician and of vaudeville regurgitator, Hadji Ali, performing at the Hardy dinner party. Titled Politiquerias, the film was released in Latin American and Spanish markets as a feature.
Joining headliners Laurel and Hardy was a supporting cast of native Spanish speakers: Linda Loredo played Mrs. Hardy, Carmen Granada was Mrs. Laurel and Rina De Liguro was the burr under everyone's saddle in the Mae Busch role. James Finlayson absorbed the abuse — and more — of the magician and the regurgitator in the added scenes, reprising his role as the Hardy butler.

References

External links


                                                           *                       *                        *


 A publicity photo taken of Thelma Todd during the production of CHICKENS COME HOME.





Watch CHICKENS COME HOME.








A

ANOTHER FINE MESS










ANOTHER FINE MESS stars Laurel and Hardy, and also has Thelma Todd among the cast.

Another Fine Mess

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Another Fine Mess
Another fine mess 1930 poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJames Parrott
Produced byHal Roach
Written byH.M. Walker
StarringStan Laurel
Oliver Hardy
Music byLeroy Shield
CinematographyJack Stevens
Editing byRichard C. Currier
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release datesNovember 29, 1930 (1930-11-29)
Running time28' 09"
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Another Fine Mess is a 1930 short comedy film starring Laurel and Hardy. It is based on the 1908 play Home From The Honeymoon by Arthur J. Jefferson, Stan Laurel's father, and is a talkie remake of the 1927 silent Laurel and Hardy film Duck Soup.

Plot

Oliver Hardy and Stan Laurel are vagabonds being chased by the police. They hide in the cellar of the mansion of a Quatermain-esque adventurer, Colonel Wilburforce Buckshot (James Finlayson), who departs for a safari in South Africa. The mansion is to be rented out until his return, but the staff sneak off for a holiday, leaving the house empty. The boys are surrounded by police and have to deceive a honeymooning couple wanting to rent the house. Oliver disguises himself as Buckshot and Stan disguises himself as both butler Hives and chambermaid Agnes.
During a girl-talk scene with Thelma Todd and Stan (disguised as Agnes), Stan's comments get sillier and sillier. The real Colonel returns to fetch his bow & arrows, and finds the disorder that had ensued after his departure. Ollie continues his masquerade as Colonel Buckshot to the real colonel, until he sees the portrait on the wall of the real owner. Stan and Ollie escape the ensuing dressed as a wildebeest on a stolen tandem bicycle. They ride into a railroad tunnel and encounter a train, but emerge riding unicycles.

Cast

Production

Unlike other L&H shorts, the technical credits are recited by two girls in usherette outfits. Beverly and Betty Mae Crane performed the "talking titles" for several Roach shorts during the 1930-31 season as an experimental alternative to standard title cards. This was also the first Laurel and Hardy film to feature the well known Leroy Shield scorings for background music. A couple previous episodes began experimenting with it but beginning with this film, these tunes would be heard regularly on Laurel and Hardy, Our Gang, Charley Chase, Boy Friends, among other Hal Roach productions.
No foreign-language versions are known to exist for this short. Possibly this short was shown with subtitles in non-English-speaking countries, as audiences were critical of the unnatural quality of the alternate versions.

Trivia

The title of the movie is Hardy's famous catchphrase "Another fine mess". However, in films Hardy always said "another nice mess". The only known occasion when "another fine mess" was apparently said by Ollie was in a radio programme in which the team appeared in the 1940s.[citation needed]
This is also the second film to feature the line "Here's another nice mess you've gotten me into," which was first used in The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case.
Even though the butler in this film is named "Meadows", when Stan masquerades as the butler, Ollie, as the pseudo-Colonel Buckshot, refers to him as "Hives". This may or may not have been a nod to the Marx Brothers' Animal Crackers, released that same year, which was about a similarly Quatermain-esque adventurer, Captain Jeffrey T. Spaulding (Groucho Marx), and in which the mansion's butler was also named "Hives".

See also

References

External links






Watch ANOTHER FINE MESS







A

UNACCUSTOMED AS WE ARE








UNACCUSTOMED AS WE ARE was Laurel and Hardy's first talking picture. And it had Thelma
Todd in it.

Unaccustomed As We Are

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
        
Unaccustomed As We Are
L&H Unaccustomed As We Are 1929.jpg
Theatrical poster
Directed byLewis R. Foster
Hal Roach
Produced byHal Roach
Written byLeo McCarey (story)
H. M. Walker
StarringStan Laurel
Oliver Hardy
Edgar Kennedy
Mae Busch
Thelma Todd
CinematographyJohn MacBurnie
Len Powers
Jack Roach
George Stevens
Editing byRichard C. Currier
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release dates
  • May 4, 1929 (1929-05-04)
Running time18' (silent)
20' 58" (sound)
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Also silent version with English intertitles
Unaccustomed As We Are is the first sound comedy short film starring Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy released on May 4, 1929.

Plot

Ollie brings Stan home for dinner, a very unwelcome surprise for Mrs. Hardy (Mae Busch) who storms out in a huff. Mrs. Kennedy (Thelma Todd), a neighbor from across the hall, offers to help the boys cook dinner; they, in turn, help to set her dress on fire. Mr. Kennedy (Edgar Kennedy), a cop, returns home and the boys hide the slip-clad Mrs. K. in a trunk. Unaware that his wife is within earshot, Mr. Kennedy starts bragging to the boys about his extramarital liaisons.

Production notes

Unaccustomed As We Are is notable for being Laurel and Hardy's first sound film (the title was drawn from the popular cliché "Unaccustomed as we are to public speaking ..."). The soundtrack was lost for 50 years until it was traced on disc in the late 1970s. A silent version, with intertitles, was also released, as well as a Victor disc hybrid (featuring a synchronized music score and sound effects).[1]
This is the first film in which Hardy says to Laurel, "Why don't you do something to help me!" which became a catchphrase, repeated in numerous subsequent films. Also heard for the first time is Stan's distinctive, high-pitched whimper of distress.[1]
The plot of Unaccustomed As We Are was expanded into the feature film Block-Heads in 1938. In addition, the gag of the spaghetti ending on Ollie's lap was originally conceived for their 1928 silent film Habeas Corpus, but was left unfilmed.[1]

Cast

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c Skretvedt, Randy (1996). Laurel and Hardy: The Magic Behind the Movies. (2nd ed.) Anaheim, California: Past Times Publishing Co. ISBN 0-940410-29-X.

External links















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Tuesday, January 21, 2014

DC's 1972 Laurel And Hardy Comic Book









DC comics published one issue of a Laurel and Hardy comic book, which was based on Larry Harmon's made for television cartoons. Actually it was mostly reprints from the UK version, but with a new cover and one new story by John Albano, Mike Sekowsky, and Henry Scarpelli.

Reblogged from http://diversionsofthegroovykind.blogspot.com/2011/01/sunday-funnies-rare-laurel-and-hardy-by.html


 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 






DC Comics had planned to make this an ongoing series, but it was canceled after only one issue. However, a cover exists for the unpublished second issue.


 
This may have been the only time that Laurel and Hardy met Superman.






A

Laurel And Hardy

Oliver Hardy was of course best known for having worked with Stan Laurel.



Laurel and Hardy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  
Laurel and Hardy
Laurel & Hardy in Flying Deuces 1 edited.png
Laurel and Hardy in the Flying Deuces, 1939.
GenreComedy Team
FormatShort Films
Feature Length Films
Created byHal Roach
Directed byVarious Directors
StarringStan Laurel
Oliver Hardy
Theme music composerMarvin Hatley
Opening theme"The Dance of the Cuckoos"
(aka "The Cuckoo Song" or "Ku-Ku")
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
DistributorHal Roach Studios
Laurel and Hardy were a comedy double act during the early Classical Hollywood era of American cinema. The team was composed of thin Englishman, Stan Laurel (1890–1965) and heavyset American, Oliver Hardy (1892–1957). They became well known during the late 1920s through the mid-1940s for their slapstick comedy with Laurel playing the clumsy and childlike friend of the pompous Hardy.[1][2] One of the comedy routines they performed was an escalating, tit-for-tat fight, an example of which can be seen in their silent film Big Business from 1929. This film was added to the Library of Congress as a national treasure in 1992.[3] The duo's signature tune, which is known variously as "The Cuckoo Song", "Ku-Ku" or "The Dance of the Cuckoos", played over the opening credits of their films.
Prior to their being teamed up both actors had well established film careers. Laurel had appeared in over 50 films while Hardy had been in more than 250 films. The two comedians had previously worked together as cast members on the film The Lucky Dog in 1921. However, they were not a comedy team at that time and it was not until 1926, when both separately signed contracts with the Hal Roach film studio, that they appeared in a movie short together.[4] Laurel and Hardy officially became a team in 1927 when they appeared together in the silent short film Putting Pants on Philip. They remained with the Roach studio until 1940 and then appeared in eight "B" movie comedies for 20th Century Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 1941 to 1945.[5] After finishing their movie commitments at the end of 1944 they concentrated on performing in stage shows and embarked on a music hall tour of England, Ireland and Scotland.[5] In 1950, before retiring from the screen, they made their last film which was a French/Italian co-production called Atoll K.
As a team they appeared in 107 films with the pair starring in 32 short silent films, 40 short sound films and 23 full-length feature films. They also made 12 guest or cameo appearances that included the Galaxy of Stars promotional film of 1936.[6] On December 1, 1954 the pair made one American television appearance when they were surprised and interviewed by Ralph Edwards on his live NBC-TV program This Is Your Life. Since the 1930s the works of Laurel and Hardy have been released in numerous theatrical reissues, television revivals, 8-mm and 16-mm home movies, feature-film compilations and home videos. In a 2005 they were voted as the seventh greatest comedy act of all time by a UK poll of fellow comedians.[7] The official Laurel and Hardy appreciation society is known as The Sons of the Desert which was named after a fictitious fraternal society featured in the Laurel & Hardy film of the same name.


Early careers

Stan Laurel

Stan Laurel (June 16, 1890 – February 23, 1965) was born Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Ulverston, Lancashire, England into a theatrical family.[8] His father, Arthur Joseph Jefferson, was a theatrical entrepreneur and theater owner in northern England and Scotland, who with his wife, were a major force in the industry.[9] In 1905 the Jefferson family moved to Glasgow to be closer to their business mainstay The Metropole Theatre and Laurel made his stage debut in a Glasgow hall called the Britannia Panopticon one month short of his 16th birthday.[10][11] Arthur Jefferson secured Laurel his first acting job with a juvenile theatrical company, Levy and Cardwell, which specialized in Christmas Pantomimes.[12] In 1909 he was employed by Britain's leading comedy impresario Fred Karno as a supporting actor and an understudy of Charlie Chaplin.[13][14] Laurel said of Karno, "There was no one like him. He had no equal. His name was box-office."[15]
In 1912 Laurel left England with the Fred Karno Troupe to tour the United States. Laurel had expected the tour to be merely a pleasant interval before returning to London. However, he emigrated to the U.S. during this trip.[16] In 1917 Laurel was teamed with Mae Dahlberg working as a double act for stage and film and were living as common law husband and wife.[17] The same year Laurel made his film debut with Dahlberg in Nuts in May.[18] While working with Mae he began using the name Stan Laurel and later changed his name legally in 1931.[19] It was felt that Dahlberg held Laurel's career back because she demanded roles in Laurel's films and her tempestuous nature was difficult to work with. Dressing room arguments between the two were common film and it was reported that producer Joe Rock paid her to leave Laurel along with her returning to her native Australia.[20] In 1925 Laurel joined the Hal Roach film studio as a director and writer and from May 1925 through September 1926 he received credit in at least 22 films.[21] Laurel starred in over 50 films for various producers before teaming up with Hardy.[22] However, prior to teaming with Hardy, he experienced only modest success. It was difficult for producers, writers, and directors to write for his character with American audiences knowing him either as a "nutty burglar" or a Charlie Chaplin imitator.[23]

Oliver Hardy

Oliver Hardy (January 18, 1892 – August 7, 1957) was born Norvell Hardy in Harlem, Georgia.[24] By his late teens Hardy was a popular stage singer and he operated a movie house in Milledgeville, Georgia, the Palace Theater, financed in part by his mother.[25] For his stage name he took his father's first name calling himself "Oliver Norvell Hardy" while offscreen his nicknames were "Ollie" and "Babe".[26] The nickname "Babe" originated from an Italian barber near the Lubin Studios in Jacksonville, Florida who would rub Hardy's face with talcum powder and say "That's nice a baby!". Other actors in the Lubin company mimicked this and Hardy was billed as "Babe Hardy" in his early films.[27][28]
Seeing film comedies inspired an urge to take up comedy himself and in 1913 he began working with Lubin Motion Pictures in Jacksonville. He started by helping around the studio with lights, props, and other duties gradually learning the craft as a script-clerk for the company.[25] It was around this time that Hardy married his first wife Madelyn Salosihn.[29] In 1914 Hardy acted as Babe Hardy in his first film called Outwitting Dad.[28] Between 1914 and 1916 Hardy made 177 shorts as Babe with the Vim Comedy Company that were released up to the end of 1917.[30] Exhibiting a versatility in playing heroes, villains and even female characters Hardy was in demand for roles as a supporting actor, comic villain or second banana. For 10 years he memorably assisted star comic and Charlie Chaplin imitator Billy West, Jimmy Aubrey, Larry Semon along with Charley Chase.[31] In total Hardy starred or co-starred in more than 250 silent shorts of which roughly 150 have been lost. In 1917, after being rejected while trying to enlist during World War I due to his size and the collapse of the Florida film industry, Hardy and his wife Madelyn moved to California to seek new opportunities.[32][33]

History as Laurel and Hardy

Style of comedy and characterizations

The humor of Laurel and Hardy was highly visual with slapstick used for emphasis.[34] They often had physical arguments with each other, which were quite complex and involved cartoon violence, and their characters preclude them from making any real progress in the simplest endeavors. Much of their comedy involves milking a joke, where a simple idea provides a basis from which to build multiple gags without following a defined narrative.
Stan Laurel was of average height and weight, but appeared small and slight next to Oliver Hardy, who was 6 ft 1 in (1.85 m) tall[35] and weighed about 280 lb (127 kg) in his prime. They used some details to enhance this natural contrast. Laurel kept his hair short on the sides and back, growing it long on top to create a natural "fright wig". At times of shock, he would simultaneously cry while pulling up his hair. In contrast, Hardy's thinning hair was pasted on his forehead in spit curls and he sported a toothbrush moustache. To achieve a flat-footed walk, Laurel removed the heels from his shoes. Both wore bowler hats, with Laurel's being narrower than Hardy's, and with a flattened brim.[36] The characters' normal attire called for wing collar shirts, with Hardy wearing a neck tie which he would twiddle and Laurel a bow tie. Hardy's sports jacket was a tad small and done up with one straining button, whereas Laurel's double-breasted jacket was loose fitting.
A popular routine the team performed was a "tit-for-tat" fight with an adversary. This could be with their wives—often played by Mae Busch, Anita Garvin or Daphne Pollard—or with a neighbor, often played by Charlie Hall or James Finlayson. Laurel and Hardy would accidentally damage someone's property, with the injured party retaliating by ruining something belonging to Laurel or Hardy.[34] After calmly surveying the damage, they would find something else to vandalize, and conflict would escalate until both sides were simultaneously destroying property in front of each other.[37] An early example of the routine occurs in their classic short, Big Business (1929), which was added to the Library of Congress as a national treasure in 1992. Another short film which revolves around such an altercation was titled Tit for Tat (1935).
One best-remembered dialogue routine was the "Tell me that again" routine. Laurel would tell Hardy a genuinely smart idea he came up with, and Hardy would reply, "Tell me that again." Laurel would attempt to repeat the idea, but babble utter nonsense. Hardy, who had difficulty understanding Laurel's idea even when expressed clearly, would understand perfectly when hearing the jumbled version. While much of their comedy remained visual various lines of humorous dialogue appeared in Laurel and Hardy's talking films. Some examples include:
  • "You can lead a horse to water but a pencil must be led." (Laurel, Brats)[37]
  • "I was dreaming I was awake but I woke up and found meself asleep." (Laurel, Oliver the Eighth)
  • "A lot of weather we've been having lately." (Hardy, Way Out West)
In some cases their comedy bordered on the surreal in a style that Stan Laurel called "white magic".[34][38] For example in the 1937 film Way Out West Laurel clenches his fist and pours tobacco into it as if it were a pipe. He then flicks his thumb upward as if working a lighter. His thumb ignites and he matter-of-factly lights his "pipe". The amazed Hardy, seeing this, would unsuccessfully attempt to duplicate it throughout the film. Much later Hardy finally succeeds – only to be terrified when his thumb catches fire. Laurel repeats the pipe joke in the 1938 film Block-Heads again to Hardy's bemusement - the joke ends this time by a match Laurel was using relighting itself which Hardy throws into the fireplace whereupon it explodes with a loud bang.
Rather than showing Hardy suffering the pain of misfortunes, such as falling down stairs or being beaten by a thug, banging and crashing sound effects were often used so the audience could visualize the scene for themselves.[34] The 1927 film Sailors Beware was a significant film for Hardy because two of his enduring trademarks were developed. The first was his "tie-twiddle" to demonstrate embarrassment.[34] Hardy, while acting, had been met with a pail of water in the face. He said, "I had been expecting it, but I didn't expect it at that particular moment. It threw me mentally and I couldn't think what to do next, so I waved the tie in a kind of tiddly-widdly fashion to show embarrassment while trying to look friendly." [39] His second trademark was the "camera look" in which he breaks the fourth wall.[37] Hardy said "I had to become exasperated so I just stared right into the camera and registered my disgust."[40] Offscreen Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy were quite the opposite of their movie characters: Laurel was the industrious "idea man" while Hardy was more easygoing.[41]

Catchphrases

The catchphrase most used by Laurel and Hardy on film is: "Well, here's another nice mess you've gotten me into!"[37] The phrase was earlier used by W. S. Gilbert in both the The Mikado from 1885 and The Grand Duke from 1896. It was first used by Hardy in The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case in 1930. In popular culture the catchphrase is often misquoted as "Well, here's another fine mess you've gotten me into." The misquoted version of the phrase was never used by Hardy and the misunderstanding stems from the title of their film Another Fine Mess.[42] Numerous variations of the quote appeared on film. For example in Chickens Come Home Ollie says impatiently to Stan "Well...." with Stan replying, "Here's another nice mess I've gotten you into." The films Thicker than Water and The Fixer-Uppers use the phrase "Well, here's another nice kettle of fish you pickled me in!" In Saps at Sea the phrase becomes "Well, here's another nice bucket of suds you've gotten me into!".
Another regular catchphrase, cried out by Ollie in moments of distress or frustration, as Stan stands helplessly by, is, "Why don't you do something to help me?" And another, not-as-often used catchphrase of Ollie, particularly after Stan has accidentally given a verbal idea to an adversary of theirs to torment them even more; "Why don't you keep your (big) mouth shut?!"
"D'oh!" was a catchphrase used by the mustachioed Scottish actor James Finlayson who appeared in 33 Laurel and Hardy films.[37] The phrase, expressing surprise, impatience, or incredulity, was the inspiration for "D'oh!" as spoken by the fictional character Homer Simpson in the long-running animated comedy The Simpsons. Homer's first intentional use of "d'oh!" occurred in the Ullman short "Punching Bag" (1988).[43]

Films

Laurel and Hardy appeared for the first time together in The Lucky Dog (1921).
The first film pairing of the two, although as separate performers, took place in the silent film The Lucky Dog in 1921. The exact date the film was produced is not recorded but film historian Bo Bergulund dated it between late 1920 and January 1921.[44] The association was casual, based upon interviews given in the 1930s, and both of them had forgotten it entirely.[45] The plot sees Laurel's character befriended by a stray dog, which after some lucky escapes, saves him from being blown up by dynamite. Hardy's character is a mugger attempting to rob Laurel.[46] Several years later both comedians separately signed with the Hal Roach film studio and next appeared in the 1926 film 45 Minutes From Hollywood.[47]
Hal Roach was considered to be the most important person in the developement of their film careers. Along with bringing the team together they worked for Hal Roach Studios for over 20 years.[48] Charley Rogers worked closely with the three men for many years and said, "It could not have happened if Laurel, Hardy and Roach had not met at the right place and the right time."[49] Their first "official" film together as a team was the 1927 film Putting Pants on Philip.[50] The plot involves Laurel as Philip, a young Scots man newly arrived in the United States, in full kilted splendor suffering mishaps involving the kilt. His uncle, played by Hardy, is shown trying to put trousers on him.[51]
Laurel said to John McCabe "Of all the questions we're asked, the most frequent is how did we come together? I always explain that we came together naturally."[52] Laurel and Hardy were joined by accident and grew by indirection.[53] In 1926 both were part of the Roach Comedy All Stars which was a group of actors of similar standing who took part in a series of films. Quite unwittingly Laurel and Hardy's parts grew larger and parts of their fellow stars diminished because Laurel and Hardy were considered to be great actors.[54] Their teaming up was suggested by Leo McCarey who was their supervising director from 1927 and 1930. It was during this period that McCarey and Laurel jointly devised the team's format.[55] After teaming up they played the same characters for 30 years.[56]
Although Hal Roach employed writers and directors such as H. M. Walker, Leo McCarey, James Parrott and James W. Horne on the Laurel and Hardy films Laurel would rewrite entire sequences or scripts. He would also have the cast and crew improvise on the sound stage and then he meticulously reviewed the footage during the editing process.[57] By 1929 Laurel was the head writer and it was reported that the writing sessions were gleefully chaotic. Stan had three or four writers who joined in a perpetual game of 'Can You Top This?'[58] As Laurel obviously relished writing gags Hardy was more than happy to leave the job to his partner and was once quoted as saying "After all, just doing the gags was hard enough work, especially if you have taken as many falls and been dumped in as many mudholes as I have. I think I earned my money".[33][59] From this point Laurel was an uncredited film director for their films. He ran the Laurel and Hardy set no matter who was in the director's chair but never felt compelled to assert his authority. Roach remarked "Laurel bossed the production. With any director, if Laurel said 'I don't like this idea,' the director didn't say 'Well, you're going to do it anyway.' That was understood."[60] As Laurel made so many suggestions there was not much left for the credited director to do.[61]

Laurel and Hardy in the 1939 film The Flying Deuces
In 1929 the silent era of film was coming to an end and many silent-film actors saw their careers decline with the advent of sound.[62] Many silent film actors failed to make the transition because they decided their prime duty was to tell stories in words or they overemphasized their speech. Laurel and Hardy avoided this pitfall because they continued making primarily visual films.[63] They did not ignore sound but were not ruled by it.[63] As a team they proved skillful in their melding of visual and verbal humor and made a seamless transition to the talking era in their first sound film Unaccustomed As We Are from 1929.[64] The title took its name from the familiar phrase "Unaccustomed as we are to public speaking".[65] In the opening dialogue Laurel and Hardy began by spoofing the slow and self-conscious speech of the early talking actors which became a routine they would use regularly.[66]
The first feature film starring Laurel and Hardy's was Pardon Us from 1931.[67] What is considered the most memorable Laurel and Hardy is the 1932 film The Music Box. The footage of the duo forever pushing a piano up an endless flight of steps seems to have stuck in the public consciousness for decades.[68] The film won an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Subject in 1932.[69] While many enthusiasts claim the superiority of The Music Box their 1929 silent film Big Business is by far the most consistently acclaimed.[70] The plot of this film sees Laurel and Hardy as Christmas tree salesman involved in a classic tit-for-tat battle with a character played byJames Finlayson that eventually destroys his house and their car.[71] Big Business was added to the Library of Congress in the United States as a national treasure in 1992.[72] The film Sons of the Desert from 1933 is considered to be Laurel and Hardy's best feature length film.[73] A number of their films were reshot with Laurel and Hardy speaking in Spanish, Italian, French or German.[74] The plots for these films were similar to the English-language version although the supporting cast were often native language speaking actors. While Laurel and Hardy could not speak these foreign languages they received voice coaching for their lines. The film Pardon Us from 1931 was reshot in all four foreign languages while the films Blotto, Hog Wild and Be Big! were made in French and Spanish versions. Night Owls was made in both Spanish and Italian versions and Below Zero along with Chickens Come Home were only made in a Spanish version.

Laurel and Hardy in their final film, Atoll K (1951)
The 1934 film Babes in Toyland retains a timeless appeal and remains a perennial on American television during the Christmas season.[75] When interviewed Hal Roach spoke scathingly about the film and Laurel's behavior during the production. Laurel was unhappy with the plot, and after an argument, was allowed to make the film his way.[76] The rift damaged Roach-Laurel relations to the point that Roach said that after Toyland he no longer wished to produce Laurel and Hardy films. However, their association continued for another six years.[57] Hoping for greater artistic freedom, Laurel and Hardy split with Roach and signed with major studios 20th Century-Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[33] However, the working conditions were now completely different as they were hired simply as actors, relegated to the B-film divisions, and were initially not allowed to improvise or contribute to the scripts.[33] When the films proved popular the studios allowed the team more input and Laurel and Hardy starred in eight features through 1944. These films, while not considered the team's best work, were financially very successful. Each film was budgeted from $250,000 to $300,000 each and the films earned millions at the box office. The films were so profitable that Fox kept making Laurel and Hardy comedies after discontinuing its other "B" series films.[77]
In 1951 Laurel and Hardy made their final feature length film together which was Atoll K. This film was a French-Italian co-production directed by Leo Joannon but was plagued by problems with language barriers, production issues and the grave health issues of Laurel and Hardy.[76] During the filming Hardy began to lose weight precipitously and developed an irregular heartbeat. Laurel was experiencing painful prostate complications as well.[78] Critics were disappointed with the storyline, English dubbing and Laurel's sickly physical appearance in the film.[35] The film was not a success and it brought an end to Laurel and Hardy's film careers.[78] Most Laurel and Hardy films have survived and have not gone out of circulation permanently. Three of their 107 films are considered lost and have not been seen in their complete form since the 1930s.[79] The silent film Hats Off from 1927 has vanished completely. The first half of the 1927 film Now I'll Tell One is lost and the second half has yet to be released on video. In the 1930 operatic Technicolor musical The Rogue Song Laurel and Hardy appear in 10 sequences and only one of which is known to exist with the complete soundtrack.[80]

Final years

Following the making of Atoll K Laurel and Hardy took some months off so Laurel could recuperate. Upon their return to the European stage in 1952 they undertook a well-received series of public appearances performing a short sketch Laurel had written called "A Spot of Trouble". Hoping to repeat the success the following year Laurel wrote a routine entitled "Birds of a Feather".[81] On September 9, 1953 their boat arrived in Cobh in the Republic of Ireland. Laurel recounted their reception:
"The love and affection we found that day at Cobh was simply unbelievable. There were hundreds of boats blowing whistles and mobs and mobs of people screaming on the docks. We just couldn't understand what it was all about. And then something happened that I can never forget. All the church bells in Cobh started to ring out our theme song "Dance of the Cuckoos" and Babe (Oliver Hardy) looked at me and we cried. I'll never forget that day. Never."[82]

Laurel and Hardy on NBC's This Is Your Life December 1, 1954
On December 1, 1954 the team made their only American television appearance when they were surprised and interviewed by Ralph Edwards on his live NBC-TV program This Is Your Life. Lured to the Knickerbocker Hotel as a subterfuge for a business meeting with producer Bernard Delfont the doors opened to their suite #205 flooding the room with light and the voice of Edwards. This telecast was preserved on a kinescope and later released on home video. Partly due to the positive response from the television broadcast the pair was renegotiating with Hal Roach, Jr. for a series of color NBC Television specials to be called Laurel and Hardy's Fabulous Fables. However, plans for the specials had to be shelved as the aging comedians continued to suffer from declining health.[81] In 1955 Laurel and Hardy made their final public appearance together while taking part in the program This Is Music Hall. This was a BBC Television program about the Grand Order of Water Rats that is a British variety organization. Laurel and Hardy provided a filmed insert in which they reminisce about their friends in British variety. They made their final appearance on camera in 1956 in a home movie titled "One Moment Please". The film was shot by a family friend at Laurel's home and it contains no audio and is three minutes in length.[83]
In 1956, while following his doctor's orders to improve his health due to a heart condition, Hardy lost over 100 pounds (45 kg; 7.1 st). However, he suffered several strokes that resulted in the loss of mobility and speech. Despite having long and successful career it was reported that Hardy's home was sold to help cover the cost of his medical expenses during this time.[76] He died of a stroke on August 7, 1957 and longtime friend Bob Chatterton stated that Hardy weighed just 138 pounds (63 kg; 9.9 st) at the time of his death. Hardy was laid to rest at Pierce Brothers Valhalla Memorial Park, North Hollywood.[84] Following Hardy's death Laurel and Hardy's films were returned to movie theaters as clips of their work were featured in Robert Youngson's silent-film compilation The Golden Age of Comedy.
For the remaining eight years of his life Stan Laurel refused to perform and even turned down Stanley Kramer's offer of a cameo in his landmark 1963 movie It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World.[85] In 1960 Laurel was given a special Academy Award for his contributions to film comedy but was unable to attend the ceremony, due to poor health, and actor Danny Kaye accepted the award for him.[86] Despite not appearing onscreen after Hardy's death Laurel did contribute gags to several comedy filmmakers. During this period most of his communication was in the form of correspondence and he insisted on answering every fan letter personally.[85] Late in life he hosted visitors of the new generation of comedians and celebrities including Dick Cavett, Jerry Lewis, Peter Sellers, Marcel Marceau and Dick Van Dyke. Laurel lived until 1965 and survived to see the duo's work rediscovered through television and classic film revivals. He died on February 23 in Santa Monica and is buried at Forest Lawn-Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles, California.[87]

Supporting cast members

Laurel and Hardy's films included a memorable supporting cast, some of whom appeared regularly.[88]
  • Harry Bernard played bit parts as waiter, bartender and cop.
  • Mae Busch played a formidable Mrs. Hardy, and other characters, particularly sultry female pests.
  • Charley Chase, the Hal Roach film star and brother of James Parrott, Laurel and Hardy writer/director, made four appearances.
  • Baldwin Cooke played bit parts as a waiter, bartender and cop.
  • Richard Cramer appeared as a scowling, menacing villain or opponent
  • James Finlayson, a small, balding, moustachioed Scotsman known for displays of indignation and squinting "double takes", made 33 appearances and is perhaps their most celebrated foil.
  • Anita Garvin was a memorable Mrs. Laurel.
  • Billy Gilbert made many appearances, most notably as bombastic, blustery characters, and also notably in the classic The Music Box (1932).
  • Charlie Hall, who usually played angry "little men", appeared nearly 50 times.
  • Jean Harlow, the "Blonde Bombshell" had a small role in their short Double Whoopee (1929) and two other films, before her breakout stardom.
  • Arthur Housman made memorable appearances as a comic drunk.
  • Isabelle Keith, the only actress to appear as wife to both Laurel and Hardy (in Perfect Day and Be Big!, respectively)
  • Edgar Kennedy, master of the "slow burn", often appeared as a cop, hostile neighbor, or relative.
  • Walter Long played grizzled, physically threatening villains, similar to Richard Cramer.
  • Sam Lufkin appeared several times.
  • Charles Middleton made a handful of appearances, usually as an adversary.
  • Daphne Pollard was featured, mostly as Oliver's shrewish wife.
  • Viola Richard appeared in several early silent films, most notably as a cave girl in Flying Elephants (1928).
  • Charley Rogers, the English actor, appeared several times.
  • Tiny Sandford was a tall and burly man who played authority figures, notably cops.
  • Thelma Todd appeared several times.
  • Ben Turpin, the cross-eyed actor, made two memorable appearances.
  • Peter Cushing, well before becoming a star in many memorable Hammer Horror Films, made an appearance in A Chump at Oxford.

Music

The duo's famous signature tune, known variously as "The Cuckoo Song", "Ku-Ku" or "The Dance of the Cuckoos", was composed by Roach musical director Marvin Hatley as the on-the-hour chime for the Roach studio radio station.[89] Laurel heard the tune on the station and asked Hatley to use it as the Laurel and Hardy theme song. The original theme, recorded by two clarinets in 1930, was recorded again with a full orchestra in 1935. Leroy Shield composed the majority of the music used in the Laurel and Hardy short sound films.[90] A compilation of songs from their films, titled Trail of the Lonesome Pine, was released in 1975. The title track was released as a single in the UK and reached #2 in the charts.

Influence and legacy


Silhouette portrait of the duo in Redcar, England

Posthumous revivals and popular culture

Since the 1930s the works of Laurel and Hardy have been released again in numerous theatrical reissues, television revivals (broadcast, especially public television and cable), 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, feature-film compilations and home video. After Stan Laurel's death in 1965 there were two major motion-picture tributes: Laurel and Hardy's Laughing '20s, Robert Youngson's compilation of the team's silent-film highlights and The Great Race that was a large-scale salute to slapstick which director Blake Edwards dedicated to "Mr. Laurel and Mr. Hardy". For many years the duo were impersonated by Jim MacGeorge (as Laurel) and Chuck McCann (as Hardy) in children's TV shows and television commercials for various products.[91] Numerous colorized versions of copyright-free Laurel and Hardy features and shorts have been reproduced by a multitude of production studios. Although the results of adding color were often in dispute many popular titles are currently only available in the colorized version. The color process often renders the print into an unwatchable state with some scenes were altered or deleted depending on the source material used.[92] Their film Helpmates was the first film to undergo the process and was released by Colorization Inc., a subsidiary of Hal Roach Studios, in 1983. Colorization was a success for the studio and Helpmates was released on home video with the colorized version of The Music Box in 1986. The technology for this process was inferior compared to today's digital colorization technology. There were numerous continuity errors and garish color design choices used in the production process. However, the most significant criticism these versions received revolved around their editing with complete scenes being altered or deleted altogether which changed the character of the film.

Statue of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy outside the Coronation Hall Theatre, Ulverston, Cumbria, England
There are two Laurel and Hardy museums with one in Laurel's birthplace, Ulverston, United Kingdom and the other in Hardy's birthplace, Harlem, Georgia, United States.[93][94] Maurice Sendak showed three identical Oliver Hardy figures as bakers preparing cakes for the morning in his award-winning 1970 children's book In the Night Kitchen.[95] This is treated as a clear example[by whom?] of "interpretative illustration" wherein the comedians' inclusion harked back to the author's childhood.[N 1] The Beatles used cut-outs of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy in the cutout celebrity crowd for the cover of their 1967 album Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. A 2005 poll by fellow comedians and comedy insiders of the top 50 comedians for The Comedian's Comedian, a TV documentary broadcast on UK's Channel 4, voted the duo the seventh greatest comedy act ever making them the top double act on the list.[7]
Merchandiser Larry Harmon claimed ownership of Laurel's and Hardy's likenesses and has issued Laurel and Hardy toys and coloring books. He also co-produced a series of Laurel and Hardy cartoons in 1966 with Hanna-Barbera Productions.[98] His animated versions of Laurel and Hardy guest-starred in a 1972 episode of Hanna-Barbera's The New Scooby-Doo Movies. In 1999 Harmon produced a direct-to-video feature live-action comedy entitled The All-New Adventures of Laurel and Hardy: For Love or Mummy. Actors Bronson Pinchot and Gailard Sartain were cast playing the lookalike nephews of Laurel and Hardy named Stanley Thinneus Laurel and Oliver Fatteus Hardy.[99]

The Sons of the Desert

The official Laurel and Hardy appreciation society is known as The Sons of the Desert, after a fraternal society in their film of the same name (1933).[100] It was founded in New York City in 1965 by Laurel and Hardy biographers John McCabe, Orson Bean, Al Kilgore, Chuck McCann and John Municino with the sanction of Stan Laurel.[101] Since the group's inception well over 150 chapters of the organization have formed across North America, Europe and Australia. An Emmy-winning film documentary about the group, Revenge of the Sons of the Desert, has been released on DVD as part of The Laurel and Hardy Collection, Vol. 1.

Around the world

Laurel and Hardy are popular around the world, but often with different names, for example in Poland they are known as "Flip and Flap" (Flip i Flap), in Germany as "Dick und Doof" (Thick and Stupid)*, in Brazil as "O Gordo e o Magro" (The Fat and the Skinny)"*, in Sweden as Helan och Halvan (the Whole and the Half) *, in the Spanish-speaking world as "El Gordo y el Flaco", in Italy as Stanlio e Ollio* (also as "Cric e Croc" up to the 1970s), in Hungary as "Stan és Pan" (Stan and Pan), in Romania as "Stan și Bran" (Stan and Bran), in the Netherlands as "de dikke en de dunne" (the fat one and the skinny one) and in Denmark they are known as "Gøg and Gokke" (Gøg og Gokke),

Filmographies

References

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ Sendak described his early upbringing as sitting in movie houses fascinated by the Laurel and Hardy comedies.[96][97]

Citations

  1. Jump up ^ "Laurel and Hardy." Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved: June 12, 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Rawlngs, Nate (July 20, 2010). "Top 10 Across-the-Pond Duos". Time Magazine. Retrieved June 18, 2012. 
  3. Jump up ^ "Laurel and Hardy to ‘Make ’em Laugh’ in silent film benefit". The Catalina Islander. May 3, 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  4. Jump up ^ Smith, Leon (1984). Following the Comedy Trail. Pomegranate Press Ltd. p. 24. 
  5. ^ Jump up to: a b McGarry, Annie (September 1,1992). Laurel & Hardy. London: Bison Group. p. 67. 
  6. Jump up ^ Seguin, Chris. "Forgotten Laurel &Hardy film emerges on French DVD". The Laurel & Hardy Magazine. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Jump up to: a b "Cook voted 'comedians' comedian'". BBC News. 2 January 2005. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  8. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 11.
  9. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 14.
  10. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 22.
  11. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 200.
  12. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 25.
  13. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 159.
  14. Jump up ^ Louvish 2001, p. 18.
  15. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 26.
  16. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, pp. 42–43.
  17. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 169
  18. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 158.
  19. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 113.
  20. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 170.
  21. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 182.
  22. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 249.
  23. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 117.
  24. Jump up ^ Louvish 2001, p. 37.
  25. ^ Jump up to: a b Bergen 1992, p. 26.
  26. Jump up ^ Cullen et al. 2007, p. 661.
  27. Jump up ^ McIver 1998, p. 36.
  28. ^ Jump up to: a b McCabe 1989, p. 19.
  29. Jump up ^ Everson 2000, p. 22.
  30. Jump up ^ McCabe 1989, p. 30.
  31. Jump up ^ Louvish 2001, pp. 107–108.
  32. Jump up ^ McCabe 1989, p. 32.
  33. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Nizer, Alvin (Summer 1975). "The Comedian's Comedian". Liberty Magazine. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  34. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Bann, Richard W. "The Legacy of Mr. Laurel & Mr. Hardy". Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  35. ^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, Glenn. The Laurel & Hardy Encyclopedia. London: Batsford, 1995. ISBN 0-7134-7711-3
  36. Jump up ^ St. Mark, Tyler (2010). "Laurel & Hardy: The Hat Facts (Part 1)". Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  37. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Chilton, Martin (5 December 2013). "Laurel and Hardy: it's still comedy genius". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  38. Jump up ^ McCabe 1975, p. 18.
  39. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 123.
  40. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 124.
  41. Jump up ^ Gehring 1990, p. 5.
  42. Jump up ^ Andrews 1997, p. 389.
  43. Jump up ^ "What’s the story with... Homer’s D’oh!". The Herald, Glasgow, July 21, 2007, p. 15. Retrieved: July 25, 2010.
  44. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 181.
  45. Jump up ^ Barr 1967, p. 9.
  46. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 180.
  47. Jump up ^ Gehring 1990, p. 273.
  48. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 98.
  49. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 100.
  50. Jump up ^ Gehring 1990, p. 62.
  51. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 229.
  52. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 117.
  53. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 118.
  54. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, p. 120.
  55. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 188.
  56. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, p. 54.
  57. ^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell 2010, p. 28.
  58. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, p. 50.
  59. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, p. 52.
  60. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, pp. 59–61.
  61. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, p. 61.
  62. Jump up ^ Sagert 2010, p. 40.
  63. ^ Jump up to: a b McCabe 1987, p. 153.
  64. Jump up ^ Gehring 1990, p. 42.
  65. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 305.
  66. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 252.
  67. Jump up ^ Gehring 1990, p. 23.
  68. Jump up ^ Skretvedt 1987, p. 230.
  69. Jump up ^ McCabe 2004, p. 73.
  70. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 39.
  71. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 38.
  72. Jump up ^ "Big Business awards." IMDb. Retrieved: December 19, 2011.
  73. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 268.
  74. Jump up ^ Fullerton, Pat. "Laurel & Hardy Overseas." patfullerton.com. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
  75. Jump up ^ Mitchell 2010, p. 27.
  76. ^ Jump up to: a b c Lawrence, Danny (2011). "The Making of Stan Laurel: Echoes of a British Boyhood". McFarland. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  77. Jump up ^ McCabe 1987, pp. 214–215.
  78. ^ Jump up to: a b McGarry 1992, p. 73.
  79. Jump up ^ Dorman, Trevor. "A Guide to the Lost Films of Laurel and Hardy - Update". The Laurel and Hardy Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2011. 
  80. Jump up ^ Haines 1993, p. 13.
  81. ^ Jump up to: a b McCabe 1975, p. 398.
  82. Jump up ^ Baker, Glenn A (March 13, 2011). "History's harbour". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012. 
  83. Jump up ^ Rascher, Matthias (May 13, 2011). "1956 Home Movie: Laurel & Hardy Together for the Last Time". Openculture.com. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  84. Jump up ^ Smith 1984, p. 191.
  85. ^ Jump up to: a b Bowen, Peter (February 23, 2010). "Stan Laurel Dies". Focus Features. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  86. Jump up ^ "Letters from Stan.com 1961". The Stan Laurel Correspondence Archive Project. 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  87. Jump up ^ Smith 1984, p. 187.
  88. Jump up ^ "Laurel and Hardy Films: The People." laurelandhardyfilms.com, Retrieved: April 3, 2011.
  89. Jump up ^ Louvish 2001, p. 267.
  90. Jump up ^ Louvish 2002, p. 268.
  91. Jump up ^ McCann, Chuck. "Laurel & Hardy Tribute." chuckmccann.net: Chuck McCann, November 30, 2007. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
  92. Jump up ^ Tooze, Gary. "Laurel & Hardy - The Collection (21-disc Box Set)." dvdbeaver.com. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
  93. Jump up ^ "Laurel & Hardy Museum: Ulverston akedistrictletsgo.co.uk, June 2004. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
  94. Jump up ^ Root, Robin. "Laurel and Hardy Museum and Harlem, Georgia Visitor Info Center." www.laurelandhardymuseum Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
  95. Jump up ^ Lewis,Peter. "In the Night Kitchen." commonsensemedia.org. Retrieved: April 20, 2011.
  96. Jump up ^ Lanes 1980, p. 47.
  97. Jump up ^ Salamon, Julie. "Sendak in All His Wild Glory." The New York Times, April 15, 2005. Retrieved: May 28, 2008.
  98. Jump up ^ Krurer, Ron. "Laurel and Hardy cartoons by Hanna-Barbera." toontracker.com. Retrieved: March 1, 2010.
  99. Jump up ^ "The All New Adventures of Laurel & Hardy in 'For Love or Mummy'". The Internet Movie Database (IMDB). 1999. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  100. Jump up ^ MacGillivray, Scott. "Welcome to Sons Of The Desert The International Laurel & Hardy Society". Retrieved 7 December 2013. 
  101. Jump up ^ Rense, Rip (November 9, 1989). "A Fan Club Just for 'The Boys' : Films: The Sons of the Desert has been meeting since 1965 to honor Laurel and Hardy.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 December 2013. 

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  • Lahue, Kalton C. World of Laughter: The Motion Picture Comedy Short, 1910-1930. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966. ISBN 978-0-8061-0693-9.
  • Louvish, Simon. Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy: The Double Life of Laurel and Hardy. London: Faber & Faber, 2001. ISBN 0-571-21590-4.
  • Maltin, Leonard. Movie Comedy Teams. New York: New American Library, 1985; First edition 1970. ISBN 978-0-452-25694-1.
  • Maltin, Leonard, Selected Short Subjects (First published as The Great Movie Shorts. New York: Crown Publishers, 1972.) New York: Da Capo Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-452-25694-1.
  • Maltin, Leonard. The Laurel & Hardy Book (Curtis Films Series). Sanibel Island, Florida: Ralph Curtis Books, 1973. ISBN 0-00-020201-0.
  • Maltin, Leonard. The Great Movie Comedians. New York: Crown Publishers, 1978. ISBN 978-0-517-53241-6.
  • Marriot, A. J. Laurel & Hardy: The British Tours. Hitchen, Herts, UK: AJ Marriot, 1993. ISBN 0-9521308-0-7
  • Marriot, A. J. Laurel and Hardy: The U.S. Tours. Hitchen, Herts, UK: AJ Marriot, 2011. ISBN 978-0-9521308-2-6
  • Mast, Gerald. The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979; First edition 1973. ISBN 978-0-226-50978-5.
  • McCabe, John. Mr. Laurel & Mr. Hardy: An Affectionate Biography. London: Robson Books, 2004; First edition 1961; Reprint: New York: Doubleday & Co., 1966. ISBN 1-86105-606-0.
  • McCabe, John. The Comedy World of Stan Laurel. Beverly Hills: Moonstone Press, 1990; First edition 1974, Doubleday & Co. ISBN 0-940410-23-0.
  • McCabe, John, with Al Kilgore and Richard W. Bann. Laurel & Hardy. New York: Bonanza Books, 1983; First edition 1975, E.P. Dutton. ISBN 978-0-491-01745-9.
  • McCabe, John. Babe: The Life of Oliver Hardy. London: Robson Books, 2004; First edition 1989, Citadel. ISBN 1-86105-781-4.
  • McCaffrey, Donald W. "Duet of Incompetence" (essay). The Golden Age of Sound Comedy: Comic Films and Comedians of the Thirties. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1973. ISBN 978-0-498-01048-4.
  • McGarry, Annie. Laurel & Hardy. London: Bison Group, 1992. ISBN 0-86124-776-0.
  • MacGillivray, Scott. Laurel & Hardy: From the Forties Forward. New York: iUniverse, 2009; First edition Lanham, Maryland: Vestal Press, 1998. ISBN 1-4401-7239-0.
  • McIntyre, Willie. The Laurel & Hardy Digest: A Cocktail of Love and Hisses. Ayrshire, Scotland: Willie McIntyre, 1998. ISBN 978-0-9532958-0-7.
  • McIver, Stuart B. Dreamers, Schemers and Scalawags. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press Inc., 1998. ISBN 978-1-56164-155-0
  • Mitchell, Glenn. The Laurel & Hardy Encyclopedia. New York: Batsford, 2010; First edition 1995. ISBN 978-1-905287-71-0.
  • Nollen, Scott Allen. The Boys: The Cinematic World of Laurel and Hardy. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 1989. ISBN 978-0-7864-1115-3.
  • Okuda, Ted and James L. Neibaur. Stan Without Ollie: The Stan Laurel Solo Films: 1917-1927. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2012. ISBN 978-0-7864-4781-7.
  • Robb, Brian J. The Pocket Essential Laurel & Hardy. Manchester, UK: Pocket Essentials, 2008. ISBN 978-1-84243-285-3.
  • Robinson, David. The Great Funnies: A History of Film Comedy. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1969. ISBN 978-0-289-79643-6.
  • Sanders, Jonathan. Another Fine Dress: Role Play in the Films of Laurel and Hardy. London: Cassell, 1995. ISBN 978-0-304-33196-3.
  • Scagnetti, Jack. The Laurel & Hardy Scrapbook. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8246-0278-9.
  • Sendak, Maurice. In the Night Kitchen. New York: HarperCollins, 1970. ISBN 0-06-026668-6.
  • Skretvedt, Randy. Laurel and Hardy: The Magic Behind the Movies. Anaheim, California: Past Times Publishing Co., 1996; First edition 1987, Moonstone Press. ISBN 978-0-94041-077-0.
  • Smith, Leon. Following the Comedy Trail: A Guide to Laurel & Hardy and Our Gang Film Locations. Littleton, Massachusetts: G.J. Enterprises, 1984. ISBN 978-0938817055.
  • Staveacre, Tony. Slapstick!: The Illustrated Story. London: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 978-0-207-15030-2.
  • Stone, Rob, et al. Laurel or Hardy: The Solo Films of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy. Manchester, New Hampshire: Split Reel, 1996. ISBN 0-9652384-0-7.
  • Ward, Richard Lewis. A History of the Hal Roach Studios. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8093-2637-2.
  • Weales, Gerald. Canned Goods as Caviar: American Film Comedy of the 1930s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. ISBN 978-0-226-87664-1.

External links



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John McCabe was a friend of Stan Laurel's who married one of Laurel and Hardy's leading ladies, Rosina Lawrence. I had the good fortune to be able to write to him  in his later years.

I haven't seen that many of the colorized versions of Laurel and Hardy movies and do not know the extent of the problems that the wikipedia article attributes to them.

The television cartoons and other Laurel and Hardy related material involving Larry Harmon resulted from an agreement Stan Laurel had made with Harmon.



                                                                   LUCKY DOG

 
 
 
 
With Marion Byron
 
 
"I seen her foist!"
 



                               UNNACUSTOMED AS WE ARE with Mae Busch





CHICKENS COME HOME: with Mae Busch and Thelma Todd

 
 
 
 
 
With Thelma Todd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OUR RELATIONS with Lona Andre and Iris Adrian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 OUR RELATIONS with Iris Adrian and Lona Andre

 
 
 
 
 
OUR RELATIONS: with Betty Healy, Lone Andre, Daphne Pollard, Iris Adrian
 
 
 
 
 
 

                                                THE FLYING DEUCES with Jean Parker












Visible in the background are photos of Oliver Hardy, Hal Roach, and Harry Langdon.





                                                          ATOLL K with Suzy Delair






Laurel and Hardy:
http://www.laurel-and-hardy.com/

http://laurelandhardyfilms.com/

http://laurelandhardycentral.com/

http://www.wayoutwest.org/

http://www.laurelandhardyforum.com/portal/



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