You could say that Joe E. Brown was the first man to play Superman in the movies. Or then again you might not. It depends on which story you go by.
Dust jacket of the first edition
|Publisher||Alfred A. Knopf|
A copy of the book can be seen on Hollis Mason's shelf in one panel of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen.
StoryThe story begins at the turn of the 20th century. Professor Abednego Danner lives in a small, rural Colorado town, and has a somewhat unhappy marriage to a conservative religious woman. Obsessed with unlocking genetic potential, Danner experiments with a tadpole (which breaks through the bowl he's keeping it in), and a pregnant cat, whose kitten displays incredible strength and speed, managing to maul larger animals. Fearing the cat may be uncontrollable, Danner poisons it. When his wife becomes pregnant with their first child, Danner duplicates his experiment on his unknowing wife.
Their child Hugo almost immediately displays incredible strength, and Danner’s wife realizes what her husband has done. Though she hates him, she does not leave him, and they instead raise their son to be respectful of his incredible gift and sternly instruct him never to fight, or otherwise reveal his gifts, lest he be the target of a witch-hunt. Hugo grows up being bullied at school, unwilling to fight back. However, he finds release when he discovers the freedom the wilderness around his hometown provides, unleashing his great strength on trees as a manner of playing.
Hugo finds success in his teenage years, becoming a star football player, and receives a college scholarship. He spends summers and free time trying to find uses for his strength, becoming a professional fighter and strongman at a boardwalk. After killing another player during a football game, Hugo quits school.
Danner then journeys to France and joins the French Foreign Legion fighting in World War I, where his bulletproof skin comes in handy. Upon returning home, he gets a job at a bank, and when a person gets locked inside the vault, Hugo volunteers to get him out if everyone will leave the room. Alone, Hugo rips open the vault door, freeing the man. The banker's response is not gratitude but suspicion. Hugo is deemed an inventive safecracker who was otherwise waiting for an opportunity to rob the vault. Not only is he fired and threatened with arrest for the destruction of the vault, but he is taken away and (ineffectually) tortured. He withstands all attempts at getting him to tell how he opened the vault, escapes, and lifts a car into the air (a feat echoed in the first appearance of Superman on the cover of Action Comics #1).
Next, he attempts to have an influence in politics, but becomes infuriated with the state of affairs and the bureaucracy of Washington. Still seeking a goal for his life and a purpose for his powers, he joins an archeological expedition headed for Mayan ruins. Finally finding a friend in the scientist heading the expedition, Hugo reveals his gifts and origin to him. The wise archeologist sympathizes with Danner and suggests some courses of action for him to take. That night, during a thunderstorm, Danner wanders to the top of a mountain, debating what to do. He asks God for advice, and is struck dead by a bolt of lightning.
PhilosophyAlthough the book was written during the heyday of pulp action heroes and as the superhero genre was emerging, at no point does Hugo Danner put on a costume or seek to be a vigilante, or much of a hero of any kind, realizing the futility of such a move. Instead, it is the story of someone with incredible gifts unable to find his place in the world.
There is wide speculation about how much of what is happening in the story is indicative of feelings held personally by author Philip Wylie. The death of the protagonist by lightning while he asked questions of God likely echoes some of the feelings Wylie was known to have about religion.
FilmsThe novel was made into a comedy movie in 1938 starring Joe E. Brown and released only two months after Superman first appeared on newsstands.
ComicsThe story was adapted for Marvel Comics in Marvel Preview #9 (published in winter of 1976) by Roy Thomas and Tony DeZuniga, roughly following the storyline of the first half of the novel. (It is unknown if a continuation was planned.) It is billed "from the blockbusting novel 'Gladiator' by Philip Wylie" on the cover, with the story titled "Man God" inside. Thomas later created a character named Arn "Iron" Munro in the DC comic book Young All-Stars, the son of Hugo Danner, who had faked his death and later returned to Colorado and became a parent.
The novel was adapted into a four issue prestige style comic book by acclaimed writer Howard Chaykin with art by Russ Heath. The series was published by Wildstorm, a division of DC Comics, in 2005. The story was retitled "Legend", although the covers of the first two issues include a large blurb saying "Inspired by Philip Wylie's Gladiator". The setting of the story was moved forward to the second half of the century, and the Vietnam War replaced World War I, but the story remained largely intact.
Publication historyThe hardcover novel was first published by New York City, New York's Alfred A. Knopf in 1930, with book club editions that same year from Book League Monthly.
Gladiator has remained in print through several decades, with editions including hardcovers from Shakespeare House (1951), and Hyperion Press (1974, ISBN 0-88355-124-1, with an introduction by Sam Moskowitz), and paperback editions from Avon Books (1949 and 1957), Lancer Books (1958, 1965, 1967, 1973, and 1985), Manor Books (1976), the University of Nebraska Press imprint Bison Books (2004, with an introduction by Janny Wurts, ISBN 0-8032-9840-4), Disruptive Press (2004), and Blackmask (2004, ISBN 1-59654-013-3, ISBN 978-1-59654-013-2).
- Feeley, Gregory (March 2005). "When World-views Collide: Philip Wylie in the Twenty-first Century". Science Fiction Studies 32 (95). ISSN 0091-7729. http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/review_essays/feeley95.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-06.
- Jones, Gerard. Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. New York: Basic Books, 2004 (ISBN 0465036562), pg. 346: Wylie threatened to sue Siegel for plagiarism in 1940, but there is no evidence he carried through with the litigation. Historian Jones writes that, "Siegel flatly denied that Wylie's novel had influenced him in any way," although Jones added his own conjecture that "the timing and striking similarities ... would seem to leave no doubt of Gladiator's role".
- The Gladiator (1938 movie) at the Internet Movie Database
- Gladiator by Philip Wylie. A site dedicated to Philip Wylie's novel, Gladiator. Includes cover scans of almost all editions, a scan of a lengthy inscription by Wylie about Gladiator and various essays.
- Complete novel at archive.org
The Joe E. Brown movie is loosely based on the original story:
And now to take a look at the book it was based on. And the story that Superman was based on it.
Superman had a love intrest in Lois Lane, while Wylie's Gladiator didn't seem to have any kind of a girlfriend at all. This book cover shows him surrounded by beautiful girls, and he's still all alone. A non-achiever in more ways that one, in just about any way he can look, in fact.
It's also clear that Superman resembles other characters besides Wylie's. The business of the hero traveling to a planet with less gravity and thereby having greater strength than that planets inhabitants, and being able to leap great distances ( as the earliest Superman stories had it - he wasn't described as flying till later ) had alreay been used by the Edgar Rice Burroughs character John Carter, while Lester Dent's Doc Savage not only had already been called a "Superman" and a "Man Of Bronze" ( Superman was the "Man Of Steel" ),
but had a "Fortress Of Solitude" before Superman had one. Some people also thought that Clark Kent and Lois Lane had been named after Doc Savage, whose first name was "Clark", and Margo Lane, the girlfriend of The Shadow.
Not only that, but Superman was at least partly inspired by movie heroes such as Douglas Fairbanks, and Lois Lane owes much to movie heroines such as Glenda Farrel and Lola Lane, by Siegel and Shuster's own statements.
It should come as no surprise that the movies influenced Superman in the comics. They've been an influence on all the other superhero comics ever since.
As for whether or not Phillip Wylie's story influenced Superman, that depends on which story you want to believe.
Joe E. Brown Pictures:
Joe E. Brown Virtual History:
THE GLADIATOR ( Movie ) At All Movie.com:
Man Mountain Dean:
THE RUNAWAY ROBOT: